What antibiotic is used for tooth infection?
Odontogenic infection is a range of the inflammatory diseases of the mouth cavity and maxillofacial area that threaten the human’s health. At first sight, the infections of the mouth cavity are not dangerous but the absence of the proper treatment may result in serious threatening endangering human life complications in the cranial cavity.
The dental infections may be divided into several types depending on the anatomical site:
- Odontogenic – inflammatory infections of the tooth tissues (caries, pulpitis);
- Paradontal – inflammatory infections of periodont and gingiva (parodontitis, pericoronitis);
- Inflammatory infections of ambient tissues;
- Nonodontogenic – inflammatory infections of the salivary glands and mucous membranes.
A complexity in the treatment of the mouth cavity infections consists in a presence of microflora. It is usually a mixed flora which includes more than 3-5 organisms. A change of the microflora may be caused by various factors, and therefore nobody is insured against this infection.
Due to the very active microflora in the mouth cavity, it is rather difficult to detect a certain infection agent even at the modern conditions. Therefore, the therapy of the dental infection consists in the use of the broad action medications that influence on all specific organisms in the mouth cavity.
It stands to mention that the systemic antibacterial therapy is done only during the spread of the dental infection outside the parodontium: bones, soft tissues of the face and neck, and during high body temperature. The antibiotics are also prescribed in case of the development of a severe edema in the tissues of the maxillofacial area due to the developed infection and purulent discharges.
Nowadays, there are main infection agents of the mouth cavity:
- Streptococcus spp.;
- Peptostreptococcus spp.;
- Staphylococcus spp..
It is mainly an anaerobic flora which is easily treatable during the modern antibacterial therapy. Each infection requires an individual set of the antibacterial medications:
- To treat pulpitis, Amoxicillin and Clindamycin is recommended. They better affect Streptococcus viridans (S. milleri) that cause this diagnosis.
- To treat parodontitis a drug of the choice is Doxycycline and Amoxicillin.
- If abscess, the combined therapy (Amoxicillin + Metronidazole), or monotherapy with Vancomycin is required.
Co-trimoxazole, Ciprofloxacin and Cefuroxime will be also effective antibiotics during the inflammatory infections of the mouth cavity. These are the modern antibiotics with the broad action that are active as to gram-negative bacteria and anaerobes, the most frequent agents of the maxillofacial infections.
As to more popular and proved drugs Tetracycline and Erythromycin, their efficacy in the treatment of the dental infections is doubtful. One of the main activators Streptococcus spp. has a high resistance to these antibiotics, so that they may be used only as alternative medications, during the reliable study of the flora and detecting the infection agent.
Dental Abscess – Does Amoxicillin help with tooth infection and pain?
A tooth abscess is a purulence of gingiva which is accompanied by the pulsing or dull pain. A site of the disease is often placed in the area of the tooth root but in case of the neglected proper treatment, the inflammation spreads on the next parts and may affect the bone tissue of the jaw.
A cause of the abscess is usually a bacterial infection that reaches the soft tissues as a result of caries, a bad tooth split, or after unprofessional treatment of the tooth root canal.
Doctors distinguish 3 types of the tooth abscess:
- Gingival abscess – an infection of gingiva without affecting a tooth. It is often accompanied with a severe inflammation and a cheek edema.
- Periodontal abscess – a process inside the gingival pocket.
- Periapical abscess appears in the tooth with abiotic pulpa.
This process has an intensive inflammatory reaction, severe pain during the light pushing on the tooth regardless of the type of an abscess. Patients often experience high body temperature, and increased cervical lymph nodes. A drain of the infection site and a remove of the purulence is one of the obligatory actions during severe types of the abscess but this procedure is executed with the antibacterial therapy.
Amoxicillin is a medication for the dental abscess and helps to reduce pain and inflammation by means of the direct effect on the infection agents.
This inflammatory process may be caused by any pathogenic flora which is present in the mouth cavity. We have talked about the main infection agents of the mouth cavity. As Amoxicillin acts on most infection agents of the mouth cavity, its administration is the most useful.
The antibacterial therapy may replace the drain tube and the drain of the inflammation, if the use of Amoxicillin was started during the first signs of the tooth abscess or gingiva abscess.
Pain is gradually reduced during the reduction of the purulence and the inflammation. If the pain is severe and bothers a patient to eat, it is recommended to take non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs which will help to decrease pain and relieve the course of the therapy in addition to Amoxicillin.
Amoxicillin penetrates and is accumulated in the area of an infection in the gum, tooth root, or soft tissues. As to the infection agents, the medication provides a bactericidal action, i.e. it breaks the cellular wall of the organisms and deprives them of an ability to replicate.
A peak of the concentration of Amoxicillin occurs in about 2-3 hours in the tissues of the body, so that the action of the antibiotic starts at the first day of the treatment. The decrease of edema and pain happens within 2-3 days depending on a severity of the inflammatory process and a vulnerability to the action of Amoxicillin.
If the drain of the tooth canal or soft tissues is required, it is executed after the started therapy: on the 2-3 day. It will increase the efficacy of the mechanical cleaning and avoid a relapse in the future. The antibiotic is continued being used for 5-7 days after the drain.
The use of Amoxicillin neutralizes the pain focus and the inflammation and helps to avoid the spread of the infection and a development of the ulcers. In case of the late antibacterial therapy, the infection may affect the tissues near the tooth, tongue, and cause serious ulcers on the mucosa.
Amoxicillin for dental infection dosage
A peculiarity of the antibacterial therapy of the dental infections is a long duration. Amoxicillin is usually prescribed for 10 to 14 days depending on a severity of the infection.
Amoxicillin is supplied in the form of the pills for the peroral use and a solution for injections. In case of the severe infectious processes such as abscess, it is recommended to use the drug injectably in the place of an inflammation and the purulence accumulation. It will give faster results.
In case of toothache or inflammatory infections of the middle severity, it is better to take the Amoxicillin pills. The improvement of the symptoms will occur within 2-3 days.
Standard therapeutic regimen of the dental infection treatment with Amoxicillin:
- Adults and children over 12: 1 pill of Amoxicillin 500 mg 3 times per day. The minimal period of the treatment is 10 days. The maximal daily dose is 3 g.
- Children under 12: 20-40 mg Amoxicillin per 1 kg body mass. The dose is divided into 3 parts and taken by equal portions within a day. The minimal period of the treatment is 10 days.
In situations when Amoxicillin does not cope with an infection due to the possible resistance of bacteria to penicillin, Clavulanic acid is recommended being used with the antibiotic.