What is Urinary Tract Infection?
Urinary tract infections (UTI) is an inflammatory process which is placed in various sections of the urinary system and caused by a pathogenic flora. This type of the disease has a relapsing course with possible development of the severe complications.
As to the distribution, the urinary tract infections are divided into:
- Infections of the upper sections: pyelonephritis, kidney abscess;
- Infections of the lower sections: cystitis, urethritis, and prostatitis.
A peculiarity of this type of the infection is an asymptomatic course for a long period, and so it may cause the obstructive and structural changes in the upper and lower sections of the urinary system.
According to the statistics, the urinary tract infection is the second common disease in the clinical bacteriological practice. The bacterial respiratory infections are often met. In the USA, more than 7 million visits to a doctor per year falls to the urinary tract infections. 2 million out of them are related to the attack of cystitis.
Cystitis is one of the most common infections of the urinary tracts, and the attack happens in winter because of the body overcooling. The overcooling is the most evident cause of the urinary tract infections, and that is why people living on the north countries are subject to these diseases, and people who are out in frost often have it. Even the slightest overcooling of the body may be a cause of cystitis or pyelonephritis.
Every disease appears as a result of bacteria in the urinary bladder regardless of the factors of the urinary tract infections development, and in case of the pyelonephritis, bacteria go to kidney through the renal duct.
Women often suffer from this infection than men, however, men expect a long-term and even severe course of the disease during the development of the urinary tract infections. It is related to the peculiarity of urethra, and a physiological constitution of the urinary tracts.
How does an infection reach the urinary system?
An urinary tract infection starts because a bacterial infection reaches the tracts. A complete sterile urine is formed in the kidneys, and it contains just water, salts, and various products of metabolism. That is why, to damage the kidneys, an infectious agent should penetrate inside urethra at first, where favourable conditions are created for its replication, and then it goes to the urinary bladder.
An inflammation of the mucous membrane of the urinary bladder is called cystitis. A patient usually has peculiar symptoms of the disease at this stage (high body temperature, pain during urination, frequent urination).
If the adequate antibacterial therapy is absent, an infection goes to the kidneys through the renal ducts, and pyelonephritis is developed. The disease turns into a chronic one at this stage, and it complicates the further therapy. And if the adult patients may feel the disease symptoms in time and start the proper therapy, the infection development in children is hardly diagnosed.
Unfortunately, children’s urinary tract infections are very dangerous because they often become chronic and may cause serious complications in the kidneys in the future.
In general, a spread of the inflammatory infections in pediatric population is about 25 cases per 1000 children. It is known that 8% of girls and 2% of boys at the age of under 7 are diagnosed one acute episode of the urinary tract infection. This data does not include the episodes which are not diagnosed in the clinical conditions, and therefore a number of children with the urinary tract infection is by 2-3 times higher than official sources state.
How does an infection reach urethra?
- Noncompliance of the personal hygiene rules;
- During unprotected sexual intercourse (in about half of all cases, the urinary tract infection is caused by the sexually-transmitted diseases);
- During the use of certain contraceptive methods (diaphragm ring, spermicidal agents);
- As a result of the urine stagnation during the diseases of the urinary tracts of various origin.
There is a slight risk of the disease development as a result of the respiratory infection complications. The pathogenic organisms penetrate into the urinary system through the blood, and the immune function is reduced, and bacteria are easily replicate. In this case, bacteria often damage the upper parts: kidneys and urinary bladder, and the disease affects the urethra.
Amoxicillin usage and dosage for UTI
The bacterial UTI are divided into uncomplicated and complicated. The difference between them consists in the symptoms and pathogenic flora which causes an infectious process.
The main agents of the uncomplicated infections of the urinary tracts:
- Escherichia coli;
- Staphylococcus saprophyticus;
- Proteus mirabilis.
The main agents of the complicated infections of the urinary tracts:
- Staphylococcus aureus;
- Proteus spp.;
- Pseudomonas spp.;
- Klebsiella spp.;
- Fingal infections.
If the uncomplicated infections are often caused by one agent, the complicated infections may be caused by 2-3 bacteria which may have a various vulnerability to the antibiotic. That is why, medication with the broad actions such as Amoxicillin are used.
Moreover, an empiric treatment influences on a choice of the medication, it is a method of the treatment when the medication is prescribed before having the results of the bacteriological test. In this case, Amoxicillin plays a great role because it copes with most main agents of the infection and may be a key medication in the therapy.
But it is necessary to mention that according to the data of the World Health Organization, a resistance of bacteria to Amoxicillin varies depending on a region. For instance, in the USA and Canada, a positive dynamic is observed during the use of Amoxicillin and there is a weak resistance of organisms to this antibiotic.
In the east Europe, Russia, and some Asian countries, a vulnerability of E.coli to the action of Amoxicillin is decreased, and it tells about a lower efficacy of the therapy. In spite of this, penicillin medications are the most efficient antibiotics in the treatment of the UTI, and here is why.
A treatment and dosing regimen of the antibiotic depends on several factors:
- Age and body mass of a patient;
- Type of the UTI;
- Complicated or uncomplicated type of the disease;
As a rule, during the complicated forms of the urinary tract infections (especially pyelonephritis), a hospital stay is recommended to control the functions of the kidneys. It will help to avoid the complications and prevent the renal failure in time.
- Cystitis in adults: 1 pill of Amoxicillin 500 mg 3 times per day within 3-5 days;
- Pyelonephritis in adults: 1 pill of Amoxicillin 500 mg 3 times per day within 14 days;
- Urethritis in adults: 1 pill of Amoxicillin 500 mg 3 times per day within 3-5 days.
The pills are taken every day, with a full glass of clear water. As Amoxicillin is acid-proof and does not lose its pharmacological properties during the interaction with food, the pills may be taken before and after meals.
It is very important to follow the interval between the use of the pills during the treatment. It should be at least 5-6 hours, and not more than 8 hours.
The treatment of the children’s inflammatory infections of the urinary tracts needs a longer therapy. The younger a child is, the longer period the use of Amoxicillin will take. This antibiotic is safe for children, a long lasting treatment does not increase a load on the liver.
- Cystitis in children under 10: 1 pill of Amoxicillin 250 mg 2-3 times per day during 7-10 days.
The treatment of pyelonephritis in children takes two stages:
- 1 stage – a starting antibacterial therapy: 1 pill of amoxicillin 125/250 mg 3 times per day during 14-20 days;
- 2 stage: an anti-relapse therapy: 1 pill of Amoxicillin 125/250 mg 2-3 times per day during 1-3 weeks.
The treatment of the children’s pyelonephritis with the antibiotics should be controlled by a doctor. A self-treatment is not recommended because the incorrect treatment or dosing may increase a resistance of bacteria to the therapy.
How fast does Amoxicillin work for UTI?
Amoxicillin has a very high level of the absorption in the intestine. About 95% of the active ingredient are completely absorbed into the blood flow within 1-2 hours after the use of the pill. As a result, the action of the antibiotic starts in several hours after the use.
However, to effectively neutralize the action of bacteria in the urinary tract, time is needed. The values of the Amoxicillin efficacy is 3-4 days during the UTI.
The symptoms of the disease are kept within 2 days from the moment of the treatment. Then, a patient feels better, pain during urination is reduced, the frequency to urinate drops, and the body temperature becomes normal. The higher the infection is on the tract, the longer Amoxicillin needs to kill bacteria.
To treat urethritis, several days will be enough to effectively neutralize the pathogenic flora.
If cystitis and pyelonephritis, less than a week is required for Amoxicillin to kill the cells of the organisms and cause an improvement of the symptoms.
If it is referred to the complicated types of the UTI, Amoxicillin may start acting later, and a patient will not feel the improvement of the disease symptoms in the first week. In spite of this situation, the treatment should be continued because a refuse from the antibiotic may cause an attack of the disease, and then Amoxicillin will lose its efficacy.
Amoxil for UTI in pregnancy
If a pregnant woman is diagnosed an urinary tract infection, a therapeutic therapy is started instantly. The agents of the UTI easily penetrate through the placenta, and it may cause a fetus infection. Moreover, the attack of an infection may increase a risk during labors and cause complications during bearing a child.
A doctor still makes a final choice of the antibacterial medications, and it depends on a term of the pregnancy, its efficacy, and possible risks for fetus. Unfortunately, many antibiotics do not do for pregnant women.
For instance, fluoroquinolones are prohibited during the entire pregnancy, co-trimoxazole is contraindicated in the first and third terms, aminoglycosides may be taken only by the life indications but a risk of the side effects is too high.
Amoxil is one of few antibiotics allowed for the use by pregnant women and has enough efficacy during the UTI. The clinical studies have proved that the use of Amoxil during the pregnancy does not cause pathological changes in the fetus development, and there are no complications during labors.
Moreover, Amoxicillin has a low index of the side effects, and therefore pregnant women often have unpleasant symptoms related to the use of the antibiotic.
During the use of Amoxil for UTI in pregnancy, a daily dose of the antibiotic is slightly reduced.
- The treatment should be started from the minimal dose of 250 mg 3 times per day.
If this dosing does not provide a required effects within 5 days, a daily dose may be increased up to 500 mg, and the daily dose will be up to 1,5 g.
The increase of the dose is possible only after having the bacterial test, and a doctor’s consultation. Gynecologist, and nephrologist should examine a patient in case of the kidney inflammation (pyelonephritis).